Instead solutions based on propylene glycol are commonly used. Three methods are commonly employed to determine the freeze point of the solution:, Although ethylene glycol hydrometers are widely available and mass-marketed for antifreeze testing, they give false readings at high temperatures because specific gravity changes with temperature. They are used today for a variety of applications, including automobiles, but there are lower-toxicity alternatives made with propylene glycol available. Propylene glycol and ethylene glycol are both used as antifreeze for cars and trucks They are chemically similar in many respects, with propylene glycol considered to be a safer alternative than its ethylene cousin; however, ethylene glycol has better heat transfer properties. Certain cars are built with organic acid technology (OAT) antifreeze (e.g., DEX-COOL), or with a hybrid organic acid technology (HOAT) formulation (e.g., Zerex G-05), both of which are claimed to have an extended service life of five years or 240,000 km (150,000 mi). The silicates are added to the ethylene glycol antifreeze mixture to combat corrosion in aluminum engine components. In warmer or colder areas, weaker or stronger dilutions are used, respectively, but a range of 40%/60% to 60%/40% is frequently specified to ensure corrosion protection, and 70%/30% for maximum freeze prevention down to −84 °F (−64 °C).. Polyscience Bath Fluid Ethylene Glycol, 1 Gallon Quantity 3-in-1 Antifreeze Tester in Fahrenheit Scale for Checking Freezing Point and Concentration of Ethylene Glycol or Propylene Glycol Based Automobile Antifreeze Coolant, Also for Battery Acid Condition Ethylene glycol solutions became available in 1926 and were marketed as "permanent antifreeze" since the higher boiling points provided advantages for summertime use as well as during cold weather. Common additives include sodium silicate, disodium phosphate, sodium molybdate, sodium borate, denatonium benzoate and dextrin (hydroxyethyl starch). Maintenance of systems using glycol solution includes regular monitoring of freeze protection, pH, specific gravity, inhibitor level, color, and biological contamination. Class action lawsuits were registered in several states of the US, and in Canada, to address some of these claims. The most common water-based antifreeze solutions used in electronics cooling are mixtures of water and either ethylene glycol (EGW) or propylene glycol (PGW). Common antifreezes increase the boiling point of the liquid, allowing higher coolant temperature..  Propylene glycol solutions cannot be tested using specific gravity because of ambiguous results (40% and 100% solutions have the same specific gravity). , Most commercial antifreeze formulations include corrosion inhibiting compounds, and a colored dye (commonly a fluorescent green, red, orange, yellow, or blue) to aid in identification. VOGT, P. F. 2005. Antifreeze proteins refer to chemical compounds produced by certain animals, plants, and other organisms that prevent the formation of ice. Larger systems (such as HVAC systems) are often monitored by specialist firms which take responsibility for adding corrosion inhibitors and regulating coolant composition. Glycol comes in two varieties: ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. Viscosity: lower: higher: Propylene glycol increases major head loss in the systems. Pumps head increased. Although both propylene glycol and ethylene glycol have a large number of applications across a variety of industries and uses including cosmetics and preservatives (propylene glycol) and within the manufacture of resins, inks and polyethylene terephthalate (ethylene glycol) both have a common use within antifreeze and coolant mixes. , HOAT coolants typically mix an OAT with a traditional inhibitor, usually silicates. The mixture is a very dangerous chemical if ingested, and it can cause blindness and death even in small amounts.  Honda specifically excludes 2-EHA from their formulas. It is cheap, nontoxic, and has a high heat capacity. Other important uses of ethylene glycol include heat transfer fluids used as industrial coolants for gas compressors, heating, ventilating, and air … Litigation has linked it with intake manifold gasket failures in General Motors' (GM's) 3.1L and 3.4L engines, and with other failures in 3.8L and 4.3L engines. This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 19:18. Once used for automotive antifreeze, glycerol has the advantage of being non-toxic, withstands relatively high temperatures, and is noncorrosive. The unpleasant odor in industrial use tolytriazole comes from impurities in the product that are formed from the toluidine isomers (ortho-, meta- and para-toluidine) and meta-diamino toluene which are side-products in the manufacture of tolytriazole. The most common source of ethylene glycol is automotive antifreeze or radiator coolant, where concentrations are high. 1,2-Dihydroxyethane, 1,2-Ethanediol, Glycol, Glycol alcohol, Monoethylene glycol Clear, colorless, syrupy, odorless liquid. Ethylene glycol is toxic and, if ingested, can cause fatal poisoning. (The new caps and recovery bottles were introduced at the same time as DEX-COOL).  This dye fluoresces bright green when illuminated by blue or UV light from daylight or testing lamps. Because water has good properties as a coolant, water plus antifreeze is used in internal combustion engines and other heat transfer applications, such as HVAC chillers and solar water heaters. When used in an automotive context, corrosion inhibitors are added to help protect vehicles' radiators, which often contain a range of electrochemically incompatible metals (aluminum, cast iron, copper, brass, Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are the major constituents of antifreeze. It also has a low viscosity and, therefore, reduced pumping requirements. Audi Coolant Antifreeze Antigel Refrigerant (Part No. One thing to bear in mind with modern coolant: The jugs you buy at the store are pre-diluted. Consisting of a mixture of ethylene glycol and water, the ethylene glycol antifreeze not only resists freezing, it also resists overheating when used in warm climates. Ethylene Glycol is a common component of engine coolant, or antifreeze. Glycerol was historically used as an antifreeze for automotive applications before being replaced by ethylene glycol. It is not however used widely. Once bacterial slime starts to grow, the corrosion rate of the system increases.  Japanese makes traditionally use phosphates and other inhibitors, but no silicates.. Engine Cooling Testing: Why use a refractometer? Ethylene glycol is primarily used in antifreeze formulations (50%) and as a raw material in the manufacture of polyesters such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) (40%). Honda and Toyota's new extended life coolant use OAT with sebacate, but without the 2-EHA. Glycol is a water-miscible coolant that is frequently used in heat transfer and cooling applications. The toxic makeup of ethylene glycol antifreeze mandates that the disposal of used antifreeze be treated as a hazardous chemical. It is used as antifreeze where ethylene glycol would be inappropriate, such as in food-processing systems or in water pipes in homes where incidental ingestion may be possible. Watch; Y S T p o n s H o U r e 8 Z d J 4 R X. Our antifreeze checker tests all ethylene glycol-based coolant, including GM Dex-Cool and other kinds of organic acid technology (OAT) antifreeze. The first of these to reach a decision was in Missouri, where a settlement was announced early in December 2007. It is very important to keep all opened containers of ethylene glycol antifreeze tightly closed because the chemical is very dangerous to humans and animals. It is clear, colorless and practically odorless liquid completely soluble in water. Ethylene glycol has a bitter, sweet taste and causes inebriation. Ethylene glycol has superior heat transfer efficiency due to lower viscosity - but more fluid must be circulated to transfer the same amount of energy since Propylene glycol has higher specific heat. Buy online or have your car coolant delivered to your local store. Ethylene Glycol is the most common antifreeze fluid for standard heating and cooling applications. Whether you are running Dexcool (the orange stuff) or ethylene glycol (the green stuff), inspect the coolant level and the condition/protection of the coolant at every oil change. Freezing and boiling points are colligative properties of a solution, which depend on the concentration of dissolved substances. Antifreeze/Coolant Pentofrost® NF Antifreeze/Coolant Part Number (Concentrate/Pre-Mix) AFZ GAL AFZ GAL50/50 AFZ 87219 AFZ 87221 AFZ AF2000 AFZ AF2100 AFZ PEAKLL AFZ PEAK50/50LL AFZ ORDEX AFZ ORDEX50/50 AFZ LONGLIFE PNT PF-SF-1.5L PNT PF-NF-1.5L Antifreeze Color Green Yellow1 1 Yellow1 Orange Purple Blue Base Ethylene Glycol Phosphates Yes No This danger is amplified due to the sweet smell and taste of the thick, syrupy mixture. Antifreeze was developed to overcome the shortcomings of water as a heat transfer fluid. Regular antifreeze is composed of water mixed with methanol and ethylene glycol. When an aqueous solution of propylene glycol in a cooling or heating system develops a reddish or black color, this indicates that iron in the system is corroding significantly. Propylene glycol is considerably less toxic than ethylene glycol and may be labeled as "non-toxic antifreeze". The ingestion of the chemical can lead to permanent blindness and even death if enough of the substance has been ingested. It provides better heat transfer parameters than water, and can be mixed with water to provide a variety of heat transfer characteristics. Automotive antifreeze has a characteristic odor due to the additive tolytriazole, a corrosion inhibitor. The OEMTOOLS professional series ethylene glycol antifreeze tester is a simple and effective tool for checking antifreeze levels and measuring overall levels of coolant protection. , P-HOAT coolants mix phosphates with HOAT.  A 1:1 dilution with water is usually used, resulting in a freezing point of about −34 °F (−37 °C), depending on the formulation. Commonly used in liquid-cooled automotive and industrial combustion engines, ethylene glycol is also used in most common heating and cooling systems in houses and commercial buildings. Nitrites, silicates, borates and azoles may also be used to prevent corrosive attack on metal. IAT coolant was used in GM vehicles until 1994. In the absence of leaks, antifreeze chemicals such as ethylene glycol or propylene glycol may retain their basic properties indefinitely. Test strips—specialized, disposable indicators made for this purpose. Ethylene glycol is a clear, sweet, slightly viscous liquid that boils at 198 °C (388.4 °F). Kenneth Soeder, Daniel Benson, and Dennis Tomsheck, Allan Browning and David Berry (September / October 2010), Walter J. Rossiter, Jr., McClure Godette, Paul W. Brown and Kevin G. Galuk (1985). Most automotive engines are "water"-cooled to remove waste heat, although the "water" is actually antifreeze/water mixture and not plain water. Ethylene glycol should be avoided if there is a slightest chance of leakage to potable water or food processing systems. The physical properties of ethylene glycol-water mixtures are therefore extremely important. Buy It Now. Its most common use is as an automotive antifreeze.  This technology is typically used in Asian makes and is often dyed red or blue. The lethal dose of pure ethylene glycol is 1.4 ml/kg (3 US fluid ounces (90 ml) is lethal to a 140-pound (64 kg) person) but is much less lethal if treated within an hour. Most antifreeze is made by mixing distilled water with additives and a base product – MEG (Mono ethylene glycol) or MPG (Mono propylene glycol). These problems are addressed by the development of alternative coolants with improved properties. Proper engine coolant and a pressurized coolant system obviate these shortcomings of water. PGW is generally recognized as safe for use in food or food processing applications, and can also be used in enclosed spaces. It is also imperative to avoid using city tap water in any ethylene glycol antifreeze mixture since many city water supplies are treated with chlorine, which is a known corrosive. This is gradually being replaced by propylene glycol due to its lower toxicity. Secondarily but not less importantly, most if not all commercial antifreeze formulations intended for use in heat transfer applications include different kinds of anti-corrosion and anti-cavitation agents that preserve the entire hydraulic circuit from progressive wear. Although EGW has more desirable physical properties than PGW, the latter coolant is used in applications where toxicity might be a concern. All automotive antifreeze formulations, including the newer organic acid (OAT antifreeze) formulations, are environmentally hazardous because of the blend of additives (around 5%), including lubricants, buffers and corrosion inhibitors. The low coolant is caused by pressure caps that fail in the open position. For example, the U.S. FDA allows propylene glycol to be added to a large number of processed foods, including ice cream, frozen custard, salad dressings, and baked goods, and it is commonly used as the main ingredient in the "e-liquid" used in electronic cigarettes. In the past, coolant was sold as a pure substance that you would have to dilute with water at home before you put it in your car. Ethylene glycol is poisonous to humans and other animals. The term engine coolant is widely used in the automotive industry, which covers its primary function of convective heat transfer for internal combustion engines. $7.14. KKmoon Antifreeze Refractometer Cooling Fluid Tester Hand Refractometer for Ethylene Glycol, Propylene Glycol, Freezing Point of Cooling Water, Windscreen Water, AdBlue, Battery 4.7 out of 5 stars 39 £14.90 £ 14 . , An example is Zerex G05, which is a low-silicate, phosphate free formula that includes the benzoate inhibitor. When ethylene glycol is used in a system, it may become oxidized to five organic acids (formic, oxalic, glycolic, glyoxalic and acetic acid). Some of the newer OAT coolants claim to be compatible with all types of OAT and glycol-based coolants; these are typically green or yellow in color. Some added phosphates provide protection while the OAT builds up. Professional Antifreeze Tester Coolant Hydrometer Radiator Ethylene Glycol 0010. Customs services and international tracking provided +$18.25 shipping estimate. In other cases a vehicle may need to be operated in a colder environment, requiring more antifreeze and less water. ABOUT OUR Ethylene Glycol Antifreeze Ethylene Glycol Fluids are widely used in industry because of their, high boiling point, non-corrosiveness, freeze point depression, lubricating, hygroscopicity, solvent properties, and plasticizing.  DEX-COOL antifreeze uses two inhibitors: sebacate and 2-EHA (2-ethylhexanoic acid), the latter which works well with the hard water found in the United States, but is a plasticizer that can cause gaskets to leak. Ethylene glycol was developed because its higher boiling point was more compatible with heating systems. It is more volatile than glycol.. The purpose of antifreeze is to prevent a rigid enclosure from bursting due to expansion when water freezes. Commercially, both the additive (pure concentrate) and the mixture (diluted solution) are called antifreeze, depending on the context. Other sources of ethylene glycol include windshield deicing agents, brake fluid, motor oil, developing solutions for hobby photographers, wood stains, solvents, and paints. Tolytriazole-myth and misconceptions. 17 product ratings - Sealey Ethylene Glycol Antifreeze Pocket Tester Ball Type Anti Freeze AK4123 NEW.  Late in March 2008, GM agreed to compensate complainants in the remaining 49 states. The Analyst 12: 1–3. Ethylene glycol is used as antifreeze in cooling and heating systems, in hydraulic brake fluids, as an industrial humectant, as an ingredient of electrolytic condensers, as a solvent in the paint and plastics industries, in the formulations of printers' inks, stamp pad inks, and inks for ballpoint pens, as a softening agent for cellophane, and in the synthesis of safety explosives, plasticizers, synthetic fibers (Terylene, … If engine coolant leaks, boils, or if the cooling system needs to be drained and refilled, the antifreeze's freeze protection will need to be considered. Consisting of a mixture of ethylene glycol and water, the ethylene glycol antifreeze not only resists freezing, it also resists overheating when used in warm climates. For simplicity, most automotive manufacturers recommend periodic complete replacement of engine coolant, to simultaneously renew corrosion inhibitors and remove accumulated contaminants. The ethylene glycol antifreeze used in automotive applications should not be used in the heating and cooling systems of buildings, however, due to the containment of silicates that are mixed into the automotive antifreeze. An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid. A small amount of the green fluid can seep into and poison the groundwater supply for a great number of homes. An antifreeze mixture is used to achieve freezing-point depression for cold environments. The ethylene glycol cannot be used on its own due to the inability of cooling without water present. One of the anti-corrosion components presented as sodium or potassium 2-ethylhexanoate and ethylhexanoic acid is incompatible with nylon 6,6 and silicone rubber, and is a known plasticizer. 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